“We know only too well ... that a social rule useful at one time and for one purpose may be useless and harmful at another time and for one purpose may be useless and harmful at another time and for another purpose. Although Biblical rules once had a largely liberating influence, their effect has long since become both psychologically and politically oppressive. Alas, this transformation has characterized the course of most revolutions, the initial phase of liberation being quickly succeeded by a new phase of oppression.
The general principle that a liberating rule may, in due time, become another method of oppression has broad validity for rule-changing maneuvers of all types. This is the reason why it is so dangerous today wholeheartedly to espouse new social schemes that offer merely another set of new rules. Although, if social life is to continue as a dynamic process tending toward ever-increasing human complexity and self-determination, new rules are constantly needed; but much more than mere rule changing is necessary to attain this goal. In addition to exchanging new rules for old, we must be aware of the rationale of the old rules and guard against their persistent effects. One such effect is to form new rules that are covert reaction-formations against the old ones. Christianity, the French Revolution, Marxism, and even psychoanalysis -- as a revolution in medicine against the so-called organic tradition -- all succumbed to the inescapable fate of all revolutions, the setting up of new tyrannies.”